A comparison of the old covenant and the new covenant
A. The characteristics of the old covenant are described.
1. (Hebrews 9:1-5) The Old Testament Tabernacle and its Furnishings.
So actually the firstBundshe had ordinances of worship and earthly sanctuary. Because a tabernacle was prepared: the firstPart,in whichwarthe lampstand, the table, and the shewbread, which are called the sanctuary; and behind the second veil that part of the tabernacle called the Holy of Holies, which had the golden censer and the Ark of the Covenant, overlaid on all sides with gold, in whichwarthe golden vessel of manna, Aaron's rod that budded, and the tablets of the covenant; and over them were the cherubim of glory, covering the mercy seat. We cannot now speak of these things in detail.
a.the earthly sanctuary: The Tabernacle consecrated by the Old Covenant was planned by God, but planned for aearthlyService.
b.Because a tabernacle was prepared: IsTabernacleIt was a shop 15 meters long, 5 meters wide and 5 meters high, divided into two rooms. The largest room (The first part) was a "sacred place" measuring 15 feet (5 meters) by 30 feet (10 meters).behind the second veilthe smallest room was 15 feet (5 meters) by 15 feet (5 meters), calledthe holiest of all.
C.the chandelier: This socket for the tabernacle lamps had a central stem and six arms stood on itThe first part. It was of an unspecified size, made of pure gold, and inlaid with the onlyhellfor the tabernacle (Exodus 25:31-40).
d.Tisch: That sat upThe first partand it was of acacia wood overlaid with gold, 3 feet long, 1½ feet wide, and 2 feet 3 inches high. He had twelve loaves of itshowbread, each representing God's fellowship with the twelve tribes of Israel (Exodus 25:23-30).
mi.The sanctuary: Refers toThe first part, known as the "sacred place". AVelo(a thick curtain) separatelyThe first partof thethe holiest of all, also known as the "Holy of Holies" (Exodus 26:31-33).
F.The golden incense altar: It was of acacia wood overlaid with gold, 1½ feet (½ meter) square and 3 feet (1 meter) high. It was on the veil in front of the “Most Holy” and was used for incense (Exodus 30:1-8).
Gramm.the Ark of the Covenant: That was in thethe holiest of alland it was a chest of acacia wood overlaid with gold, 3 ¾ feet long, 2 ¼ feet wide, and 2 ¼ feet high, with neck rings on the side for carrying it without touching the ark itself (Exodus 25:10-22).
Yo were in the arkthe pot of gold that had manna(Exodus 16:33),Aarons Rute, the buds(Numbers 17:6-11), andthe tables of the federation(Exodus 25:16).
- IsMannaHe reminded Israel of God's provision and ingratitude.
- Aarons Stabreminded Israel of their rebellion against God's authority.
- IsFederal BoardsHe reminded Israel of their failure to keep the Ten Commandments and the rest of the Law.
H.the throne of mercy: This was the ornate "lid" for the Ark of the Covenant, made with the cherub designs on it. The blood of the sacrifice was sprinkled on him on the Day of Atonement for the forgiveness of Israel's sins (Exodus 25:17-22).
Yo When God looked at the Ark of the Covenant, He saw the symbols of Israel's sin, rebellion, and failure. But when the sacrificial blood was applied to the mercy seat, the sacrificial blood covered His view of Israel's sin.
2. (Hebrews 9:6-7) Priestly service in the Tabernacle under the Old Covenant.
Now when these things were thus prepared, the priests always entered the first part of the tabernacle and didServices. But in the second part of the high priestit wasonly once a year, not without blood, which he sacrificed for himself and himselfProthe sins of the peopleinvolvedin ignorance;
a.The priests always entered the first part of the tabernacle and performed the services: Ispriest, went to the holy place daily as scheduled to perform priestly duties such as tending the lampstand and changing the showbread.
b.But for the second part, the high priest went only once a year: Issecond part- sometimes also known as the "Holy of Holies" - only enteronce a yearfrom the high priestSoloon the day of atonement.
C.The high priest went only once a year, not without blood: Your entry into thesecond partit did not serve the community, but only the atonement. the atonementSangreit was first for his own sins and then for the sins of his people.
Yo access tothe holiest of allhence it has been severely restricted. Even if one could enter, it was not for true communion with God.
ii. The ancient Jewish rabbis wrote about how the High Priest did not prolong his prayer in the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement because people might think he had been killed. When he came out he threw a party for all his friends because he had left the presence of God safe and sound.
d.The sins of people committed out of ignorance: sins ofignorancethey were the specific goal of the Day of Atonement. shouldknownSin would be dealt with by regular sin offerings and daily sacrifices.
Yo In this sense, the work of Jesus is much greater than the work done on the Day of Atonement. Jesus' work on the cross is sufficient to atone for both the sins we commit in ignorance and the sins we know about.
3. (Hebrews 9:8-10) The Holy Spirit provides insight into priestly ministry under the Old Covenant.
The Holy Spirit pointed out that when the first tabernacle stood, the way into the Holy of Holies was not yet revealed. Thatwarsymbolic of the present day when both offerings and sacrifices are made that cannot conscientiously make the minister perfect;concernedonly with eating and drinking, various ablutions, and carnal ordinances imposed up to the time of the Reformation.
a.The way into the Holy of Holies was not yet open when the first tabernacle stood: The old had to pass away before God's new way could be revealed.
b.It was symbolic for today.:Symbolicis the ancient Greek wordparable. The Tabernacle itself and all that represented the Old Covenant pointed to deeper truths,parablesof the new covenant.
C.It cannot make the conscience perfect of the one who has performed the service.: The priestly ministry under the Old Covenant could not make the priests who offered these sacrifices perfect and purerespect for conscience.
Yo If the purification is incomplete for the priest, how much more so for the person for whom the priest worked!
C.Carnal ordinances imposed up to the time of the Reformation: The weakness of the priestly ministry under the Old Covenant was its inability to do justice to man's need for inner transformation. So it was fairimposed until reform.
B. Features of the New Covenant are described.
1. (Hebrews 9:11) The upper sanctuary of the New Covenant.
But Christ cameifHigh Priest of things to come, with the greatest and most perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation.
a.The largest and most perfect tabernacle not made with hands: Jesus serves as our High Priest in a higher sanctuary: the very throne room of God. This is obviously a place greater than anything human.handscould do.
2. (Hebrews 9:12-15) The supreme victim of the New Alliance.
Not with the blood of goats or calves, but with his own blood, he entered the Holy of Holies once and for all, having attained eternal salvation. For if the blood of bulls and goats and the ashes of calves sprinkled on the unclean sanctify for the cleansing of the flesh, how much more the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, becomes your conscience cleanse from dead works to serve the living God? And for this reason he is the mediator of the new covenant through death for the forgiveness of transgressions under the first covenant, that those called may receive the promise of an everlasting inheritance.
a.The blood of goats and calves: Animal sacrifices were sufficient for a temporary covering of sin, but only a perfect sacrifice could achieve iteternal salvation.
Yo The sacrifice of Jesus was superior in that it wasperfect, voluntary, rational,jmotivated by love.
b.With his own blood he entered the Holy of Holies once and for all: In the tabernacle, the sacrifice was offered outside the veil on the altar; but the atoning blood was brought into the Holy of Holies, which represents the throne of God. Jesus had to die according to the same patternhere, outside of heaven and among sinful men, but the payment made by his death had to be satisfied in heaven itself.
I.He entered the holy of holies: The High Priest entered once a year, passed through the veil and back, dropping the veil behind him as he went out; the barrier remained. Jesus rent the veil and staysinthe holy of holies, heaven itself, which welcomes us. That is what Christianity is all aboutaccess, nobarriers.
ii.with his own blood: "Blood in Scripture always involves the two thoughts of a death suffered and a life offered." (Griffith Thomas)
iii. "The Lord Jesus Christ did not come to earth to bring about atonement through the sanctity of his life or through the sincerity of his teaching, but through his death."
IV. "The Lord Jesus did not bring before God the sufferings of others or the merits of others, but his own life and death." (spurge)
C.For if the blood of bulls and goats... sanctifies to the cleansing of the flesh, how much more does the blood of Christ: If these imperfect sacrifices were accepted by Israel as sufficient, then they should consider much more the ultimate sufficiency of the perfect sacrifice.
Yo. IsAshes of a heiferthey refer to the remains of a burnt offering that was preserved. The ashes were scattered in the ablution fountain to provide sufficient water for the ceremonial cleansing (Numbers 19:1-10).
ii. This was a shadow filled and removed when Jesus offered a perfect cleansing. Therefore, the "holy water" used by the Roman Catholic Church has no value.
iii. A "red heifer" is reportedly being sought to be sacrificed and its ashes used as part of or to restore priestly functions for a rebuilt temple in Jerusalem.
d.How much more will the blood of Christ... cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?Jesus' sacrifice is enough to restore even our damageConscience.
I. A beingConscienceIt is a wonderful tool from God. But it's not perfect. our consciousness can bescorched(1 Timothy 4:2). our consciousness can bedesecrated(Tito 1:15). our consciousness can beDevil(Hebrews 10:22).
mi.Cleanse your conscience from dead works: The idea behind itdead worksit is probably sin in general, in the sense of "deadly deeds." But there must also be talk of the vain continuation of the Old Testament sacrifice, which it certainly isdead work- and all the things these discouraged Jewish Christians were lured back to.
F.To serve the living God: The believer is pure, conscience and everything, not to live for himself, butto serve the living God. Translated the ancient Greek wordmeethere it islatreuo, speaking of religious or ceremonial service, priestly.
Yo "And, dear friends, remember that henceforth you must 'serve the living God.' Those familiar with Greek will find that the type of service here referred to is not that which the slave or servant renders to him, but such worship as the priests render to God. We who have been cleansed of Christ must offer to God the worship of a royal priesthood. It behooves us to offer prayers, thanksgiving, and sacrifices; it is our duty to offer the incense of intercession; it is ours to light the lamp of testimony and set the table of showbread." (spurge)
Gramm.He is the mediator of the new covenant through death: The work of Jesus as mediator is carried out fundamentally in hisTod. His heavenly mediation work goes back to this perfect sacrifice.
H.For redemption from transgressions under the first covenant: Fulfills the payment made by Jesus on the crosssalvationfor those belowfirst pact. Any sacrifice for sin made in faith under the Mosaic commission was a debt that was paid in full on the cross.
3. (Hebrews 9:16-22) The necessity of the death of Jesus.
where is thereesWill also require the death of the testator. through a willesin force after the death of the men, as it has no force during the lifetime of the testator. So not even the firstBundit was consecrated without blood. For after Moses had declared all the commandments to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of the calves and the goats with water, scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled the book itself and all the people, saying, Theseesthe blood of the covenant which God has commanded you.” Then he sprinkled blood also on the tabernacle and on all the vessels of service. And according to the law, almost all things are cleansed with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.
a.Because the will is valid after the death of the man: ATestament(in the sense of "last will") only becomes effective upon the death of the executor. That is why Jesus had to die for the testament, the covenant, to take effect.
Yo "The same word is used in Greek for 'covenant' and 'testament,' and although the dual use is difficult, there seems to be no doubt about itback 15the word means "covenant," and inVerses 16 and 17'Testament', and then inback 18'Covenant' again." (Griffith Thomas)
ii. “When there is a question as to whether a man is alive or not, he cannot administer his estate, but if he has evidence that the deceased is dead, then the will stands. The same is true of the blessed gospel: If Jesus did not die, then the gospel is null and void.” (Wolfsmilch)
b.Therefore not even the first covenant was consecrated without blood: Death was clearly necessary for the Old Covenant. Virtually every part of the sacrificial system under the Mosaic Law was touched uponSangrein a way.
C.No bloodshed, no forgiveness: This is a fundamental principle of God's dealings with people. Modern people think that sin is remitted (forgive) byHour, Proour good deeds, for ourdecent life, or simplyTod. but there isnoForgiveness without bloodshed, and there is nonePerfectsadly withoutPerfectTo sacrifice.
Yo The bloodshed of Jesus is of Godansweron the problem of human sin. in his sermonthe bloodshedSpurgeon started off by showing us three fools. The first is a wounded soldier on the battlefield. The doctor approaches the soldier and immediately the soldier wants to know everything about the gun and the soldier who shot him. The second fool is the captain of a ship whose ship is about to sink in a terrible storm. The captain is not at the helm of the ship trying to guide it through the breaking waves; He studies maps in his room trying to figure out where the storm came from. The third fool is a man who is sick and dying because of sin, about to fall into the waves of God's righteousness, but deeply concerned about itoriginof evil We should pay attentionsolutionmore than the problem.
4. (Hebrews 9:23-28) The perfect sanctuary receives a perfect sacrifice.
ThereforeErasIt is necessary that the copies of things in the heavens be cleansed with it, but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these. Because Christ did not enter the holy of holies made with hands,which areCopies of the true, but in Heaven itself, to appear for us now in the presence of God; not to sacrifice himself many times, as the high priest enters the holy of holies every year with strange blood - then he would have had to suffer many times since the foundation of the world; but now, at the close of the centuries, he appeared once for all by the sacrifice of himself to put away sin. And as it is certain that men die only once, and after that judgment, so also Christ was sacrificed once to bear the sins of many. To those who eagerly await him, he will appear a second time, detached from sin, for salvation.
a.It was necessary that the copies of things in the heavens be purified with it: It was acceptable to himCopies of things in the heavensin the earthly sanctuary to be "cleansed" by imperfect sacrifices. butheavenly things themselvescould only becleanedwith a perfect offer.
I. "cleaninginvolves not only the elimination of impurities, but alsodedicationÖconsecration. All the implements used in the service of the tabernacle were like thiscleanedthough he is not capable of moral defilement." (Clark)
b.Because Christ did not enter the holy of holies made with hands, but heaven itself: The sacrifice of Jesus was brought on earth, but it is the basis for His ongoing ministry as our Mediator and High Priest in heaven. The writer of the Hebrews proclaims:now to appear for us in the presence of God. It's not hard to believe that Jesus does itstand in the presence of God. But to believe that He appears therefor usit is wonderful!
C.It's not like he should offer himself often: The work of Jesusfor usgoes on in heavenbut not in the sense that we continue to atone for our sins. His ministry continuesfor usin intercession and defense against the accuser of God's people (Revelation 12:10). but it doesnofurther in the sense thatYou have to offer yourself often. His sacrifice was once for all and fully fulfilled the holy righteousness of God.
Yo This passage and principle is a direct rebuke to Catholics.work outjtheologythe Mass The Roman Catholic Church wishes for the Mass to take placerepeatI don't remember butrepeat– countless times the atonement of Jesus. There is absolutely no biblical justification for this, anddeniesthe finished work of Jesus Christ on the cross. Scripture makes it clear:not that he often offers himself.
d.Then he would have had to suffer many times since the foundation of the world.: If it weren't for the sacrifice of JesusPerfect, then it should beContinuumjConstantly- evensince the foundation of the world. Imperfect sacrifices must be repeated over and over again, but a perfect sacrifice can be made once and for all and sincerely.remove sin(Not onlyHome pagesin, as in sacrifice under the old covenant). The message is clear:He manifested to take away sin through His own sacrifice.
Yo This principle of sacrifice explains why the suffering of hellshouldbe eternal to those who reject the atoning work of Jesus. They are in hell to pay the penalty for their sin, but as imperfect beings they cannot make a perfect payment. If the payment isn't perfect, then it has to beContinuumjConstantly– actually for all eternity. A soul could be released from Hell the moment its sin debt is paid in full, which is another way of saying itNever.
mi.And since it is established that men die only once, and after that the judgment, so Christ was sacrificed only once to bear the sins of many.: As true as we aredie onceand then faceevaluation, then Jesus just had to dieonce(not repeated, not continuously) tooendureour sins.
Yo It is not the intention of the author of Hebrews to discuss the subject of reincarnation. This is a secondary issue; just mention the obvious point,It is a fact that people die only once, but after that the judgment. As obvious as that is, so is it clearChrist was sacrificed once to bear the sins of many.. For the author of Hebrews, this is the truthIt is a fact that people die only once, but after that the judgmentIt's an indisputable principle.
ii. “A man dies once, and after that everything is settled and settled, and he answers for his actions in court. One life, one death: then everything is weighed and the result announced: "afterwards the judgement". So Christ comes and dies once; and after that also for him the result of his works, namely the salvation of those who wait for him. He dies once and then reaps the solid result, according to the analogy of the human race of which he has become a member and representative. (spurge)
iii. Although it was not really the intention of the author of Hebrews to discuss reincarnation, it certainly and fully isdenieshere. We die and live and die and don't live and face an eternal reckoning with a certain number of lives along the way. This life is everything, and then we stand trial. It means thatThere's no second chance beyond the grave.nowIt's time to choose Jesus Christ, because whenTo diewe just face each otherthe judgment.
IV. It is important to note that the principle ofIt is a fact that people only die onceis not aabsolute principle. There are some unique and notable exceptions. Enoch (Genesis 5:24) and Elijah (2 Reyes 2:11) Neveronce died. Several people in the Bible were raised from the dead (1 Reyes 17:22,2 Reyes 13:20-21,Mateo 9:25,Juan 11:43-44,Acts 20:9-11), and thereforedied twice. The Raptured (1 Thessalonians 4:17) Neverdie once. However, these notable and unique exceptions do not negate the principle ofIt is a fact that people only die once; SohnExceptions that prove the rule.
F.It will appear a second time, separate from sin, for salvation: The focus of Jesus' first coming was to solve the problem of sin through His atoning sacrifice. But now, having perfectly solved the problem of sin, He is coming againapart from sin- For himsalvation(with the meaning ofrescue) from his city.
I.To those who eagerly await: It isfictionalthat all believersI'm looking forward to. It is a sad case that this assumption is not always true.
ii. “It must be a daily disappointment when our Lord does not come; rather than, as I fear, being some sort of foregone conclusion that it's not going to happen yet." (Wolfsmilch)
©2018 David Guzik — No distribution beyond personal use without permission
- Clarke, Adam "Clarke's Commentary: The Holy Bible Containing the Old and New Testament with a Commentary and Critical Notes" Band 6 (Römer-Offenbarung) (New York: Eaton and Mains, 1832)
- Griffith Thomas, W.H. "Hebrews: A Devotional Commentary" (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1962)
- Spurgeon, Charles Haddon "The New Park Street Pulpit" Volumes 1-6 and "The Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit" Volumes 7-63 (Pasadena, Texas: Pilgrim Publications, 1990)
Updated August 2022